Sepak bola adalah salah satu olahraga yang sangat populer di dunia. Dalam pertandingan, olahraga ini dimainkan oleh dua kelompok berlawanan yang masing-masing berjuang untuk memasukkan bola ke gawang kelompok lawan. Masing-masing kelompok beranggotakan sebelas pemain, dan karenanya kelompok tersebut juga dinamakan kesebelasan.

Tujuan permainan

Seorang penjaga gawang mencoba mencegah bola masuk ke gawang.
Seorang penjaga gawang mencoba mencegah bola masuk ke gawang.

Dua tim yang masing-masing terdiri dari 11 orang bertarung untuk memasukkan sebuah bola bundar ke gawang lawan ("mencetak gol"). Tim yang mencetak lebih banyak gol adalah sang pemenang (biasanya dalam jangka waktu 90 menit, tetapi ada cara lainnya untuk menentukan pemenang jika hasilnya seri). Peraturan terpenting dalam mencapai tujuan ini adalah para pemain (kecuali penjaga gawang) tidak boleh menyentuh bola dengan tangan mereka selama

Taktik Permainan

Taktik yang biasa dipakai oleh klub-klub sepak bola adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. 4-4-2
  2. 4-3-2-1
  3. 4-5-1
  4. 3-4-3
  5. 3-5-2
  6. 4-3-3

taktik yang dipakai oleh sebuah tim selalu berubah tergantung dari kondisi yang terjadi selama permainan berlangsung. Pada intinya ada tiga taktik yang digunakan yaitu; Bertahan, Menyerang dan Normal.

Ofisial

Sebuah pertandingan diperintah oleh seorang wasit yang mempunyai "wewenang penuh untuk menjalankan pertandingan sesuai Peraturan Permainan dalam suatu pertandingan yang telah diutuskan kepadanya" (Peraturan 5), dan keputusan-keputusan pertandingan yang dikeluarkannya dianggap sudah final. Sang wasit dibantu oleh dua orang asisten wasit (dulu dipanggil hakim/penjaga garis). Dalam banyak pertandingan wasit juga dibantu seorang ofisial keempat yang dapat menggantikan seorang ofisial lainnya jika diperlukan.

Tim

Setiap tim maksimal memiliki sebelas pemain, salah satunya haruslah penjaga gawang. Kadang-kadang ada peraturan kejuaraan yang mengharuskan jumlah minimum pemain dalam sebuah tim (biasanya delapan).

Sang penjaga gawang diperbolehkan untuk mengambil bola dengan tangan atau lengannya di dalam kotak penalti di depan gawangnya.

Pemain lainnya dalam kedua tim dilarang untuk memegang bola dengan tangan atau lengan mereka ketika bola masih dalam permainan, namun boleh menggunakan bagian tubuh lainnya. Pengecualian terhadap peraturan ini berlaku ketika bola ditendang keluar melewati garis dan lemparan dalam dilakukan untuk mengembalikan bola ke dalam permainan.

Sejumlah pemain (jumlahnya berbeda tergantung liga dan negara) dapat digantikan oleh pemain cadangan pada masa permainan. Alasan umum digantikannya seorang pemain termasuk cedera, keletihan, kekurangefektifan, perubahan taktik, atau untuk membuang sedikit waktu pada akhir sebuah pertandingan. Dalam pertandingan standar, pemain yang telah diganti tidak boleh kembali bermain dalam pertandingan tersebut.

Lapangan permainan

Ukuran lapangan standar
Ukuran lapangan standar

Lapangan yang digunakan biasanya adalah lapangan rumput yang berbentuk persegi empat. Dengan panjang 91.4 meter dan lebar 54.8 meter. Pada kedua sisi pendek, terdapat gawang sebesar 24 x 8 kaki, atau 7,32 x 2,44 meter.

Lama permainan

Lama permainan sepak bola normal adalah 2×45 menit, ditambah istirahat selama 15 menit (kadang-kadang 10 menit). Jika kedudukan sama imbang, maka diadakan perpanjangan waktu selama 2×15 menit, hingga didapat pemenang, namun jika sama kuat maka diadakan adu penalti.


 Lama permainan standar

Sebuah pertandingan dewasa yang standar terdiri dari dua babak yang masing-masing sepanjang 45 menit. Umumnya terdapat masa istirahat 15 menit di antara kedua babak tersebut.

Perpanjangan waktu dan adu penalti

Kebanyakan pertandingan biasanya berakhir setelah kedua babak tersebut, dengan sebuah tim memenangkan pertandingan atau berakhir seri. Meskipun begitu, beberapa pertandingan, terutamanya yang memerlukan pemenang mengadakan babak tambahan yang disebut perpanjangan waktu kala pertandingan berakhir imbang: dua babak yang masing-masing sepanjang 15 menit dimainkan. Hingga belum lama ini, IFAB telah mencoba menggunakan beberapa bentuk dari sistem 'sudden death', namun mereka kini telah tidak digunakan.

Jika hasilnya masih imbang setelah perpanjangan waktu, beberapa kejuaraan mempergunakan adu penalti untuk menentukan sang pemenang. Ada juga kejuaraan lainnya yang mengharuskan pertandingan tersebut untuk diulangi.

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa gol yang dicetak sewaktu babak perpanjangan waktu ikut dihitung ke dalam hasil akhir, berbeda dari gol yang dihasilkan dari titik penalti yang hanya digunakan untuk menentukan pemenang pertandingan.

 

Wasit sebagai pengukur waktu resmi

Wasit yang memimpin pertandingan 1orang dan di bantu 2 orang sebagai hakim garis. kemudian dibantu official wasit yang membantu apabila terjadi pergantian pemain

 

 

Kejuaraan internasional besar

Kejuaraan internasional terbesar di sepak bola ialah Piala Dunia yang diselenggarakan oleh Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Piala Dunia diadakan setiap empat tahun sekali. Lebih dari 190 timnas bertanding di turnamen kualifikasi regional untuk sebuah tempat di babak final. Turnamen babak final yang berlangsung selama empat minggu kini melibatkan 32 timnas (naik dari 24 pada tahun 1998).

Kejuaraan internasional yang besar di setiap benua adalah:

Ajang tingkat klub terbesar di Eropa adalah Liga Champions, sementara di Amerika Selatan adalah Copa Libertadores. Di Asia, Liga Champions Asia adalah turnamen tingkat klub terbesar.

Sepak bola sudah dimainkan di Olimpiade sejak tahun 1900. (kecuali pada Olimpiade tahun 1932 di Los Angeles). Awalnya ini hanya untuk pemain-pemain amatir saja, namun sejak Olimpiade Los Angeles 1984 pemain profesional juga mulai ikut bermain, disertai peraturan yang mencegah negara-negara daripada memainkan tim terkuat mereka. Pada saat ini, turnamen Olimpiade untuk pria merupakan turnamen U-23 yang boleh ditamnbahi beberapa pemain di atas umur. Akibatnya, turnamen ini tidak mempunyai kepentingan internasional dan prestise yang sama dengan Piala Dunia, atau bahkan dengan Euro, Copa America atau Piala Afrika.

Sebaliknya, turnamen Olimpiade untuk wanita membawa prestise yang hampir sama seperti Piala Dunia Wanita FIFA; turnamen tersebut dimainkan oleh tim-tim internasional yang lengkap tanpa batasan umur.

Pemain-pemain sepak bola terkenal

Dunia

[sunting] Indonesia

[sunting] Rekor tidak kebobolan terlama

  1. Mazarópi (Vasco da Gama), 1816 menit
  2. Verlinden (Club Brugge), 1390 menit
  3. Abel (Atlético de Madrid), 1275 menit
  4. Huard (Bordeaux), 1266 menit
  5. Zetti (São Paulo), 1242 menit
  6. Praxitelous (Omónia Nicósia), 1221 menit
  7. AhmadReza AbedZadeh (Persepolis), 1212 menit
  8. Vítor Baía (FC Porto), 1191 menit
  9. Ivankov (Levski Sófia), 1190 menit
  10. Mujkic (Buducnost), 1156 menit
  11. Ronanenco (Zimbru Chisinau), 1154 menit

    Daftar Pemain Sepakbola Legendaris Indonesia versi Copa Indonesia April 2007

  12. Nama Posisi Karir Timnas Julukan Catatan
    Maulwi Saelan Kiper 1951 - 1958 Benteng Beton  
    Yudo Hadianto Kiper 1961 - 1974 Papi  
    Yuswardi Bek Kanan 1967 - 1974 Ajo  
    Simson Rumahpasal Bek Kanan 1975 - 1982 Palang Pintu  
    Yohanes Auri Bek Kiri 1975 - 1985 Black Silent  
    Didik Darmadi Bek Kiri 1978 - 1986    
    Anwar Ujang Stopper 1965 - 1978 Beckenbauer  
    Robby Darwis Stopper 1985 - 1997 Irung  
    Ronny Pattinasarany Libero 1970 - 1982 Si Kurus  
    Herry Kiswanto Libero 1985 - 1993 Akang  
    Iswadi Idris Gelandang 1968 - 1980 Si Bos/Boncel  
    Junaedi Abdillah Gelandang 1968 - 1983 Pet  
    Zulkarnaen Lubis Gelandang 1983 - 1986 Maradona  
    Rully Nere Gelandang 1977 - 1989 Jean Tigana  
    Nobon Kayamudin Gelandang 1971 - 1979 Biang Kerok  
    Surya Lesmana Gelandang 1963 - 1972 Jango Jakarta  
    M. Basri Gelandang 1962 - 1973 Teta  
    Tio Him Tjiang Gelandang 1951 - 1958    
    Risdianto Penyerang 1971 - 1981 Gayeng  
    Bambang Nurdiansyah Penyerang 1979 - 1986 Gerd Muller  
    Ricky Yacobi Penyerang 1982 - 1993 Paul Marinir  
    Widodo C. Putra Penyerang 1991 - 1996    
    Ramang Penyerang 1952 - 1962    









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